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Roman Fort for Reenactement Proposes
#1
Greetings.

First of all, congratulations for this great forum and for all the dedication no reenactement.

I'm studying Civil Engineering and as a final work, I'm designing a Roman Fort for historical reenactmentment proposes; it’s a huge investigation work, and I want to make no historical mistakes.

I couldn’t find any good bibliography about roman forts, their dimensions (roads, buildings, windows, dors, etc etc.), nor the materials or techniques that were used. I’m also looking for other people (or groups) who made virtual or real reconstructions and have studies I can access.

Can you please advise me?
I’ll be waiting for your reply.
Best regrets; David R; Portugal
Best regrets; David
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#2
Hi David,

welcome on RAT. I've done some reconstruction work of the wood-earth wall of the Kops Plateau, Nijmegen and done some research, so maybe I can help you. It would also be worth searching RAT, as we discussed both marching camps and other stuff already.

But before we can help you in the good direction, it would be interesting to know what you're thinking of. So here are some questions you should ask yourself before starting to look around.
1) what period do I want to show.
2) what kind of fortress do I want to show (auxilia cohort, full legion, small fortress for vexilatio, ala )
3) what kind of construction do I want to show (so and temporary encampment that just got wooden buildings, marching camp, stone?)
4) correlated to 3) which part of the empire. This becomes interesting when you take material use into account.

just to name a few.

For general impressions, do a google search on Arbeia Roman fortress (south shields, UK) and Xanten. There are also virtual reconstructions of Xanten, and some other german citys online.
________________________________________
Jvrjenivs Peregrinvs Magnvs / FEBRVARIVS
A.K.A. Jurjen Draaisma
CORBVLO and Fectio
ALA I BATAVORUM
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#3
Duncan Campbell has written two very good introductions, Roman Legionary Fortresses and Roman Auxiliary Forts. Both were published by Osprey.

You may also appreciate the Saalburg.
Jona Lendering
Relevance is the enemy of history
My website
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#4
Also
Roman Forts in Britain by David J. Breeze
and some nice illustrations in
The Roman Fort by Peter Connolly
John Kaler MSG, USA Retired
Member Legio V (Tenn, USA)
Staff Member Ludus Militus https://www.facebook.com/groups/671041919589478/
Owner Vicus and Village: https://www.facebook.com/groups/361968853851510/
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#5
And here 2 interesting links about my project I did for Stichting Romeinenfestival last year. Hope it will inspire you for your project.

First a video made by Marc Sanders about our wall:
[url:axihsby5]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTPKUI9zs_o[/url]

Next my paper about the experiences I got during this project.
[url:axihsby5]http://www.romeinenfestival.nl/Portals/24/downloads/romanWallKopsPlateau.pdf[/url]
________________________________________
Jvrjenivs Peregrinvs Magnvs / FEBRVARIVS
A.K.A. Jurjen Draaisma
CORBVLO and Fectio
ALA I BATAVORUM
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#6
Hi!

Thank you for your great directions; I'll start exploring them right away.

I haven't yet found the answer to those questions, but I do realize that I can't move on before that.

1) what period do I want to show.
- I first need to write down the major differences between periods, so I can justify my choice.
I'm thinking of either imperial or something suitable for both late republican and new imperial, like a transition phase that could serve them both.
But first, I really need to figure out the major differences among the different periods. I need to present the possibilities, and only then nominate (and justify) my choice.

2) what kind of fortress do I want to show (auxilia cohort, full legion, small fortress for vexilatio, ala )
- Well, I want to show a full legion fort, but I don't have the space or the money for that. So, I was thinking of a reduced camp that allowed the people to see how a fort was and its buildings, and at the same time allowed one or more groups of reenactors to LIVE the roman live.
For example, it would have less Barracks and with a reduced number of rooms.
Again. Even having an idea of what I want, that's not enough. I need to explain the different types of forts, and then justify my choice.

3) what kind of construction do I want to show (so and temporary encampment that just got wooden buildings, marching camp, stone?)
- Since I have reduced founds, I thought of designing a "organic" fort, that could start with wooden buildings and then slowly evolutes to earth walls.

4) correlated to 3) which part of the empire. This becomes interesting when you take material use into account.
Well, since the fort is expected to be built in south Portugal, I first should study the forts and the legions that passed by, and make a "believable" fort to this part of the Roman Empire.

Thank you again and keep giving me good directions Big Grin
Best regrets; David
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#7
Quote:I'm designing a Roman Fort for historical reenactmentment proposes; it’s a huge investigation work, and I want to make no historical mistakes.
That sounds like a wonderful project, David. I would recommend selecting one particular site, rather than trying to invent a "standard" fort. (There was no such thing as a standard fort!)

Quote:I couldn’t find any good bibliography about roman forts, their dimensions (roads, buildings, windows, dors, etc etc.), nor the materials or techniques that were used.
You really need a good, comprehensive excavation report to work from.

The majority of Roman forts are only known from selective excavation across limited areas. But there are one or two that stand out for the "completeness" of the excavation, which maximises our knowledge of the internal layout. You should first decide whether you would like to reconstruct a turf and timber fort or a stone-built fort. You can then select a suitable candidate (and I would be happy to assist in this).

I am not aware of any Roman forts in Portugal (though I wouldn't be surprised if one pops up), but there are examples in Spain to add to the usual British and German examples.

For info: Roman Auxiliary Forts at Google Books
posted by Duncan B Campbell
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#8
And one more interesting link to give you some more impressions to think about
[url:27aqvb2k]http://xanten.afg.hs-anhalt.de/desk30.html[/url]
________________________________________
Jvrjenivs Peregrinvs Magnvs / FEBRVARIVS
A.K.A. Jurjen Draaisma
CORBVLO and Fectio
ALA I BATAVORUM
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#9
Hi D B Campbell; thanks for your assistance Big Grin

Quote:You should first decide whether you would like to reconstruct a turf and timber fort or a stone-built fort. You can then select a suitable candidate (and I would be happy to assist in this).

This project can’t be too expensive, so I putted the stone-fort apart (although I still need documentation to compare the different types of forts and justify my option).
My idea was to build a timber fort with earth rampart. With time, all buildings would evolute from a timber to earth bricks with a timber structure. Are there any good excavations for this two type of forts?

Quote:I am not aware of any Roman forts in Portugal (though I wouldn't be surprised if one pops up), but there are examples in Spain to add to the usual British and German examples.
From what I’ve searched until now, there are some forts, but few or none are well documented. I’m still trying to find that ?

And thank you for that excellent reference jvrjenivs! I can’t believe I read so much and there was sutch a intresting book out there. I’ll try to aquire it right away
Best regrets; David
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#10
Quote:And thank you for that excellent reference jvrjenivs!

You're welcome. And, please keep us posted. I like these kind of projects with professional interest. Unfortunately our plans of rebuilding the Kops Plateau wall section again with proper materials, etc. has been cancelled for the moment. Hopefully we could continue working these out soon, but the future will tell us that.
________________________________________
Jvrjenivs Peregrinvs Magnvs / FEBRVARIVS
A.K.A. Jurjen Draaisma
CORBVLO and Fectio
ALA I BATAVORUM
Reply
#11
Quote:My idea was to build a timber fort with earth rampart. With time, all buildings would evolute from a timber to earth bricks with a timber structure. Are there any good excavations for this two type of forts?
In Hispania, it looks as if forts may have begun as stone-built structures -- I'm not sure what sort of timber resources were available in the Roman period. Here is the recently-published fort of Aquis Querquennis in Galicia, which appears to be a stone-built structure of Flavian date.
posted by Duncan B Campbell
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#12
if you live near Extremadura maybe you can go to visit the ruins of Castra Caecilia in Cáceres. It is a camp from republican times, 650x360 m available for two legions. the corners and defences are clearly visible, also some gates, but it hasn't got too much public, maybe that is the reason because any further excavation is being done there Cry

At least is this area is much more easy to build a stone fort than a wood one, lot of good quality stone around and little wood resources.
Javier Sanchez

"A tomb now suffices him for whom the whole world was not sufficient"
[Image: 76946975ce3.png]
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#13
Quote:Duncan Campbell has written two very good introductions, Roman Legionary Fortresses and Roman Auxiliary Forts. Both were published by Osprey.

You may also appreciate the Saalburg.

...for something rather more substantial than an introduction, I would recommend two books in English not so far mentioned.

"Roman Forts" by Dr Roger Wilson; Bergstrom Boyle books 1979 ( contains 59 original reconstruction drawings, plans and diagrams together with 40 odd photos)
This book deals with the evolution of Roman Forts in Britain, with chapters divided into each century - first to fourth. It includes marching camps, legionary forts and auxiliary forts, and the introduction of stone works and other changes from the second century onward.....

"Roman Forts of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD in Britain and the German provinces" Anne Johnson; published Adam & Charles Black 1983

This is a substantial study, divided into categories e.g. Fort plans, Construction of the fort, details of the different types of defences, details of the various internal buildings, Food and Water supply, latrines and Bath Houses, The development and changes to Fort plans from late Republican times down to Septimius Severus, and finally Fort types and garrisons....
There are over 200 illustrations in the form of Camp plans, Fortress and Fort plans, photos of sites and reconstructions, details of buildings etc

Interestingly for your part of the world, Plans are included for Camps I,III and V at Renieblas; Castillejo and Pena Redonda - all at Numantia.

If your interest does turn to Numantia, PM me and I can make further recommendations.

I would endorse what Duncan Campbell says in that it might be better to base your reconstruction on a real example, rather than a hypothetical "typical" fort....
"dulce et decorum est pro patria mori " - Horace, ODES
(It is a sweet and proper thing to die for ones country)

"No son-of-a-bitch ever won a war by dying for his country. He won it by making the other poor dumb bastard die for his country" -GeorgeC Scott as General George S. Patton
Paullus Scipio/Paul McDonnell-Staff
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#14
Quote:Duncan Campbell has written two very good introductions, Roman Legionary Fortresses and Roman Auxiliary Forts.

Yes, excellent books and the most up-to-date treatments of the subject.

Cheers,

R!
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#15
Ross Cowan wrote:
Quote:Yes, excellent books and the most up-to-date treatments of the subject.

To quote Mandy Rice-Davies ( call girl involved in the Profumo affair):
"Well, 'e would say that, wouldn't 'e ! "
- being as how he is a friend and fellow "Osprey Author" of Duncan Campbell. A shameless "plug" for a commercial product, and specifically against the rules of RAT ( as is your signature)

Quote:"......likewise members are prohibited from posting on behalf of a commercial enterprise so restricted, whether formally or informally."

However excellent Duncan's booklets may be, and I would agree with Jona that they are an excellent introduction, Four hundred years of Auxiliary Forts in just 60 pages or so, some of which is illustration, can hardly be any more than an introduction - and I hasten to add that it is no reflection on the Author, who is limited by the 'Osprey' format, and does well within those limitations.
By comparison, I have similar sized booklets devoted to a SINGLE fort, such as Birdoswald, or Porchester Castle or Vindolanda, and they don't claim to be any more than a "short guide" to their subject.

The original poster was looking for detailed information which he is far more likely to find in a much larger work, such as Anne Johnson's "Roman Forts of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD in Britain and the German provinces" - a book more than six times the size of Duncan's introductory booklet, and which covers only half the time-span.

As to "up-to-date" , I wasn't aware the Romans were currently carrying out renovations to their Forts to warrant an "up-to-date" revision! :lol: :lol: :lol:

Furthermore, as far as I recall, Duncan does not mention any 1st-2nd C Forts in Britain and Germany that are not covered in Ms Johnson's book. It would be more accurate to say Duncan's two booklets were "the most recent publications".........
"dulce et decorum est pro patria mori " - Horace, ODES
(It is a sweet and proper thing to die for ones country)

"No son-of-a-bitch ever won a war by dying for his country. He won it by making the other poor dumb bastard die for his country" -GeorgeC Scott as General George S. Patton
Paullus Scipio/Paul McDonnell-Staff
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